Amfepramone is a drug used as a weight loss adjuvant for the short-term treatment of obesity, as it suppresses appetite. Its actions are similar to those of amphetamine: it is a central nervous system stimulant with sympathomimetic action in that it promotes the release of adrenaline, but its actions may also include serotonergic receptors. This substance has the same side effects as amphetamines, such as tachycardia, agitation, hypertension, insomnia, psychosis, and stereotypical movements, and has therefore been removed from the pharmaceutical market in many countries, including Italy. Actually
D.M. 08/02/2011 ordered the transfer of amfepramone (diethylpropion) and phendimetrazine from Table II Score Table I. Therefore, starting from 05.08.2011, its manufacture, import and commerce, including online sales, and pharmacists are prohibited from making essential drugs containing amfepramone (diethylpropion) and / or phendimetrazine, and physicians are required to refrain from prescribing them.
Amphetamine-like action causes Amfepramone is also a possible stimulant for improving athletic performance. Presoprim in competition can increase your ability to handle work and increase fatigue.
Amphetaminyl, Clobenzorex, Fenproporex, Mefenorex
Amphetaminyl and the other substances mentioned are all derivatives of amphetamine, have a nitrogen substitute and are metabolized to amphetamine in the body. These substances are central stimulants used to treat narcolepsy and obesity. Becoming amphetamines in the body exhibit the same effects. They are used by athletes to avoid fatigue. Athletes who used these drugs reacted positively to amphetamines, since as a result of the metabolism of these substances in the body, these substances are found in the urine even 3/4 days after their intake. Fenproporex is still marketed in some countries such as Brazil under the name Lipenan and is marketed as a cure for obesity and is also used by truck drivers to stay awake.
Clobenzorex was present in Drugs such as Asenlix, Dinintel, Finedal, present in the US market but currently discontinued, are still available on the Internet and in developing countries such as Mexico. According to some studies, it is about 20 times less effective than amphetamine.
Mefenorex was present in drugs such as Rondimel, Pondinil, Anexate, it is still marketed in developing and subsequent countries. also on the internet. This substance is more active on the serotonergic system, therefore it has a greater euphoric effect on mood and more easily leads to side effects such as hallucinations.
Benzamphetamine, Ethylamphetamine, Furfenorex, Hydroxyamphetamine
They are all substances derived from amphetamines with similar properties. These substances are metabolized by the body to amphetamine and methamphetamine, therefore, they have the same properties and the same risks, and also in doping tests they give a positive reaction to amphetamine.
These substances have the structure of amphetamines. with various substituents that are released as soon as they enter the body and therefore become amphetamines. These substituents can affect its absorption, making it more or less rapid, or making the substance itself more resistant to first-pass metabolism.
Benzylpiperazine was originally discovered as an anthelmintic (an agent in being able to destroy or destroy parasites (helminths) from the body, it was later found that this substance in doses of 20 to 100 mg also has an effect on the central nervous system, since it has behavioral effects similar to MDMA, even if less severe.
Benzylpiperazine has a mixed mechanism of action that acts on the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine by increasing their synaptic concentrations, similar to MDMA. This substance also appears to antagonize an α2-adrenergic receptor such as yoimbin.This action also promotes the release of norepinephrine, since these receptors are neuronal autoreceptors that stimulate sedation. no release of norepinephrine. Apparently one of their antagonists increases the release of norepinephrine. In practice, benzylpiperazine inhibits negative feedback, causing an increase in neurotransmitter release.
Being also a partial agonist of serotonin receptors in high doses, it also has a hallucinogenic effect.
This substance is rarely used as a doping agent, since the behavioral effects are more pronounced than ergogenic, therefore, it is considered a high, and not a doping substance.