Oxylophrine (oxylophrine)

Oxylophrine is a sympathomimetic used to treat hypotensive conditions, with actions similar to those of ephedrine. This substance promotes the release of norepinephrine and, therefore, has indirect noradrenergic activity. Its main activity is at the level of the heart, where it has a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect (increases the heart rate and cardiac output). Its higher polarity with respect to amphetamine makes oxylophrine less active centrally because it is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, so it has less ability to act as an anorectic and behavior modulator, and also poses a lower risk of abuse.


Pemoline is a sympathomimetic substance with predominant dopaminergic action used in the treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. It has now been canceled in many countries due to possible liver problems resulting from its use. structurally different, but has similar actions to amphetamine and methylphenidate.

Basic dopaminergic activity improves the ability to carry fatigue, while ergogenic effects are limited .

Pemoline has often been used to alloy racehorses, but there are numerous cases in the sport.


Phenprometamine is another substance similar to methamphetamine, in fact it is a structural isomer and differs from it and other amphetamines in that it has a different structure in the propyl chain.

There have been several studies of this substance, however, it appears to have decreased central activity and has been studied as a possible overload. nose, but still not used in therapy.


Propilesedrina is a sympathomimetic used in the United States as a nasal decongestant. (in a Benzedrex inhaler). While in Europe it is marketed as a weight control drug (Obesin). Its activity is carried out as an α-adrenergic agonist and as an inhibitor of the reuptake of dinoradrenaline and dopamine. Its alpha-adrenergic activity justifies its use as a decongestant, but several deaths have been reported due to cardiac activity and pulmonary hypertension following the abuse of propylhexedrine. Oral ingestion of this substance has all the effects of amphetamine, so there is a risk of abuse.

Sympathomimetic action guarantees an ergogenic effect by increasing heart rate and strength. muscle contraction also reduces fatigue, as with all amphetamine-like substances.


Tuaminoheptane is an α-adrenergic agonist used as a nasal decongestant. Its vasoconstrictor activity is more potent than ephedrine and can easily lead to irritation, with glaucoma, tachycardia and hypertension among the side effects developed. Topical application reduces the risk of systemic effects, but other forms of administration may be stimulatory.


Doxapram is a breathing stimulant sold as Dopram or Stimulex and is administered intravenously. This drug is an analectic used in cases of hypoventilation due to cardiovascular pathologies, in case of opioid overdose and as an adjunct to anesthesia. Its activity can improve muscle oxygenation, providing better endurance endurance.


Amiphenazole has been used as a respiratory stimulant with similar properties to doxapram, it is also used as an antidote to morphine and barbiturates overdose. It is currently not for sale.


This substance is a vasoconstrictor respiratory stimulant. It has similar actions to doxapram and is used to treat lebitose from barbiturates and to treat chronic lung disease . How doxapram can improve muscle oxygenation, providing better endurance in endurance exercise.

Etamivan is found in Instenone, which is used for cerebrovascular insufficiency, this drug improves alertness, memory and attention and may be preferred by the athlete, as it guarantees greater clarity even under stress.

Niketamide (diethylnicotinamide)

Another respiratory stimulant, but abandoned due to its toxicity, its actions are similar to those of doxapram.


Pentetrazole was synthesized in 1934. It is a cardiovascular and respiratory stimulant used to counteract drug-induced breathing. This substance is also among the cough suppressants. It acts differently from doxapram in that it acts as a γ-aminobutyric acid antagonist. Pentetrazole can also improve muscle oxygenation and stimulate endurance athletes.