IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 1 type) or somatomedin C (since it mediates the action of somatotropin) is a growth factor, a peptide hormone similar to insulin that has an anabolic effect on tissues and promotes growth organism. IGF-1 is produced primarily in the liver as a consequence of GH-induced stimulation. When […]


WAX (methoxypolyethylene glycol-epoetin beta) is an erythropoietin continuous receptor activator (erythropoietin continuous receptor activator). This substance consists of a number of methoxypolyethylene glycol polymers integrated into the EPO molecule and linked mainly by amide bonds. This compound has a longer half-life (about 130 hours) both when administered intravenously and subcutaneously. In addition, compared to epoetin, […]



Cocaine is a alkaloid extracted from the South American coca plant . Cocaine is a stimulant of the nervous system, this substance increases the feeling of wakefulness, suppresses sleep and appetite, improves mood and increases resistance to fatigue, improving physical performance even in athletes, especially in endurance sports. In large doses, it leads to tremors, […]

GH, from discovery to dope use

Its discovery dates back to the 1920s, when its secretion by the adenohypophysis in animals was discovered. GH was isolated from humans only in 1956, and in the 70s its structure, somatotropin : it is a peptide hormone consisting of 191 amino acids, stabilized by two disulfide bridges, and reaching a molecular weight of 22 […]


Paracetamol, contained in tachypirin , is an antipyretic analgesic, but with a low anti-inflammatory capacity, it does not cause side effects such as nephrotoxicity and gastrosis, except in very high doses, in fact it is also prescribed to children to reduce febrile states. Paracetamol is indicated as an antipyretic agent in the symptomatic treatment of […]


Phenylephrine is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, used primarily as a decongestant, as a pupillary dilator and to increase blood pressure, with very little effect on the central nervous system. This active ingredient is widely used for topical application in eye drops and nasal sprays, and is also present in many over-the-counter medications. Phenylpropanolamine Phenylpropanolamine is […]

History of anabolic steroids in sports

The history of steroids in sports began shortly before the 1954 World Weightlifting Championships, where the Soviets dominated most weight classes. According to legend, when asked by a doctor from the Soviet team what the secret of his team was, he replied that his athletes were receiving testosterone injections, which at that time were not […]

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

By the abbreviation NSAID, we mean a set of substances with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects with a non-steroidal molecular structure. These substances compete with arachidonic acid to bind cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme responsible for the first step in the production of numerous molecules involved in the inflammatory process (inflammation). The so-called arachidonic acid cascade […]


Cannabinoids are psychoactive substances produced by various plants, in particular from cannabis sativa, known for its recreational use. Cannabis contains hundreds of chemicals, of which about sixty are classified as cannabinoids. Chemically, icannabinoids are terpenoids , that is, non-polar molecules capable of interacting with specific receptors present in various regions of the brain. Therefore, cannabinoids […]

Gestational diabetes: risks to mother and fetus

Gestational diabetes mellitus (see also gestational diabetes by the same author ed. ), if not properly treated, carries a risk to the mother than to the fetus; increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, even late (after the third trimester), and congenital malformations. Risks for the mother Complications that occur during pregnancy are of concern poliamnios […]