Suspended testosterone

In this form, testosterone is suspended in water, so when injected, it immediately enters the circulation and is rapidly metabolized. This form is active during the day. This form of testosterone must be administered every day to maintain stable levels, and athletes use doses of 25 to 100 mg per day. The advantage of this […]


Clenbuterol, marketed in Italy as Monores and elsewhere as Spiropent, is a particularly potent long-acting β2 agonist used in the treatment of asthma. In addition to providing anti-asthma activity, this substance increases heart rate and promotes weight loss by also acting on β3 receptors. # 3 receptors are present in adipose tissue, and their activation […]

Beta blockers

Beta blockers are a class of drugs that block the action of β-adrenergic receptors. This class includes drugs that block all β-adrenergic receptors in a non-selective manner, and others that can also selectively block one of three types of beta receptors: β 1 , β 2 receptors and β 3 . The main activity of […]

Effects of amphetamines

Amphetamines increase concentration, motivation and motor skills, reduce feelings of fatigue, prevent fatigue and reduce appetite. it is clear that these effects are needed in sports to win the competition, in particular in disciplines with anaerobic adherence, they give the best results, since more release of neurotransmitters also determines a greater ability to activate muscle […]

Genetic doping

Recent advances in biotechnology have made it possible to manipulate genetic sequences to treat various diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, progress in gene therapy has opened up the possibility of using genetic manipulation to improve athletic performance. Genetic or cellular doping is defined as the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and […]

What is doping

The term “doping” means the use of biologically active substances or drugs with the aim of increasing the physical abilities and abilities of the athlete. Doping in Italian law Doping is prescribed by Italian law and is considered a practice subject to special control measures, rules and regulations, so much so that it is considered […]

Amfepramone (diethylpropion)

Amfepramone is a drug used as a weight loss adjuvant for the short-term treatment of obesity, as it suppresses appetite. Its actions are similar to those of amphetamine: it is a central nervous system stimulant with sympathomimetic action in that it promotes the release of adrenaline, but its actions may also include serotonergic receptors. This […]